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P. Bojanic
„The USA Has No Enemy Because It Has No Form /Gestalt/...“
Enemy, Animal and Animal Functions in Schmitt and Hegel
Love of Hegel’s philosophy is found in the foundations of the friendship and writings between Alexander Kojève and Carl Schmitt. When they began writing to each other, in 1955, Schmitt was in complete isolation. Questioned at Nuremberg (but never accused), in 1946 he lost his position at the University of Berlin. Kojève, following his famous lectures on Hegel, which ended in 1939, joined the French Resistance. In 1946 Kojève began working for the French Ministry of Economic Affairs. This text is inspired by Schmitt’s letter from July 7, 1955, and Kojève’s response (January 4, 1956) concerning Hegel’s understanding of the concept of “enemy.” At the same time the text is an attempt to understand a fragment by the famous poet and Schmitt’s friend Theodor Däubler: Der Feind ist unsere eigene Frage als Gestalt.

S.G. Ivanov
Existence’s problem and comprehension to histories
The article is dedicated to analysis history and cultural processes through prism of the existence’s problem, in that its understanding, which was formed as far back as epoch scholasticism. Ideological divergences between realism and nominalism, long ago ceased to be solely theology problem, allow newly to take a look at many phenomenas past and persisting.

A.S. Kluev
The mechanism of music self-development
The present paper is intended to show the reason of the evolution of music. It is stated that the major reason of this evolution is the personality development of a composer, musician and the audience. The problem is analysed using the synergetical approach.

V.I. Krasikov
Violence and Evolution of Mind
            The contributor dwells on elucidating of chief periods of violence's limiting in human history. The first epoch of violence's limiting was a restriction of enmity between human hordes. Unbounded animosity was limited by establishing of a principle of equivalence: "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth". An idea of equal retribution was the first form of a realization of justice. Justice understanding as equal punishment in blood feud is general rule in a life of ancient people. Such principle was a reasonable limit of violence and the first form of moral relationship because it led to a mutual recognition and respect between enemies. The second qualitative leap in limiting of violence was a genesis of state. State monopolized violence and established the specific institutions of violence. State also strived to use indirect forms of violence instead of direct. State is the different phase of social evolution when safeguarding of social security becomes a special function within general division of labor. Answer the purpose only special groups; state has the right to use violence within limits of laws. State's violence objectively may lead to serious moral deformations and, what is more, above mentioned features of state organization of social life can be interpreted as a factor that really strengthens common violence. Monopoly of violence leads to its surplus. State violence is anonymous that is a consequence of establishing of the proper institution of violence. As a result, it deadens people's feeling of violence. Indirect character of state violence that is manifested itself in manipulating public opinion and in secret exploitation leads to broadening of a sphere of real using of violence.

M.V Loginova
Postmodern Discourse of Silence
In the article of a problem of silence postmodernism culture is certain. It promoted allocation of following theoretical approaches to this problem: 1) “archeology of silence”; 2) “language consciousness”; 3) silence of logocentrism. Defining the basic paradigm postmodernism culture as culture of the text, the author proves a problem of silence as the characteristic of writing. The deconstruction of logocentrism lead by a postmodernism explains silence not only as refusal from speaking, but as silence of oral speech.  

V.N. Lukin, T.V.Musienko
P.Sztompka’s Model of Trust Culture: the profile of risks
            The article analyzes one of the well-known theory of trust. The possibilities of the theoretical model are demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the problem of fundamental distrust and strategies of democratic consolidation aimed at overcoming trust crisis.

A.O. Posazhennikova, N.V. Serov
Gender parity between levels of development and moral consciousness in the early youth
In article the basic concepts "gender characteristics in an early youth ", "moral consciousness", "levels of development of moral consciousness" are submitted. Various approaches to concept of moral consciousness are considered. Features of development of moral consciousness in an early youth depending on gender characteristics are differentiated. In article approaches to research of moral consciousness are described. The results of research confirming interrelation between gender levels of development of moral statements are resulted.

A.E. Petrosyan
The breath of times
(How are possible viable new ideas)
How can get in the age’s consciousness those new ideas that don’t blend with the conceptual background? On the one hand it isn’t quite homogeneous. There latently are mated various and even polar tendencies. On causing them to clash one can create a crack and the new idea slips insensibly through it. On the other hand its opposition to some elements of the conceptual background is overcome or at least mitigated by finding the basis of their joint being, that intermediate link which unites them into one whole. Therefore a local reconstruction of the conceptual background from the standpoint of new idea (a “crafty” obedience) occurs what paves the way for its assimilation. Elsewise any new idea remains fruitless and is doomed to be forced out on the roadside of the mental development as a phantom of creative consciousness.

V.E. Semenkov
M.Petrov on historical types of communication and corresponding forms of knowledge
The article deals with M.Petrov’s theory of culture. The author of article brings into foreground the sociology of   knowledge as M.Petrov’s interest in sociology. The author of article point at metaphysics ( the philosophy of Aristotle and Hegel ) as the comprehensive content of M.Petrov thought.

S.V. Smyrnyh
Hegel’s Paradigm of Freedom
The absolute characteristic and function of spirit is effective reason, i.e. the self-determining and self-realizing notion itself – Liberty (Hegel). This process is a system of three conclusions of the logical idea, which real as absolute spirit.

A.J. Solomein
Structural aporias an essay

In this article we are making overview of an essay’s features of structure. Understands the mechanism of dual self-determination of an essay within the limits of opposition  as universal – personal.
Structurally-logic contradictions of the essays following from the given duality are analyzed.

«Ego cogito » as a principle of philosophy of R.Descartes
In the given work attempt is undertaken to investigate nature cartesians oppress Accent is put on clearings of process of interaction oppress good luck.
Key words: the God, soul, thinking, Descartes, idea, a substance.

Myth consciousness and mentality origins versus pedagogics
The topic is concentrated on non-traditional approaches to the basic issues of consciousness in relation with pedagogics evidently rejecting the natural roots of mentality. The author tries to explore the mentality origins by using so called mythological tools. This contemporary research is mainly based on some appropriate works by Piaget, Papert and Frankforts which are under close consideration here.


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